English Civil War 1642

When Charles I came to the English throne in 1625, he inherited the rocky relationship his father, James I, had with Parliament. Charles I was a strong believer in the divine right of kings and resented Parliamentary objections to his tax-raising efforts and his marriage to a Spanish Catholic princess. In 1629, Charles had locked the doors to Parliament and refused to allow them to meet. By 1640, however, Charles needed Parliament to approve new taxes so he could continue his fight against Scottish rebels. Parliament’s demands that Charles curb his power in exchange for approving taxes, and public criticisms of the king and his marriage to a Catholic by some members of Parliament led Charles to call for the arrest of five of his most vocal critics in the spring of 1642. Parliament members had been tipped off of the impending arrests and managed to flee to safety. Over the next months, tensions increased as both sides raised forces. They met in battle at Edgehill on October 23, 1642. Over the next ten years, war ravaged the country as the Parliamentarians (also known as the roundheads) slowly gained ground over the Royalists (also known as the cavaliers), ultimately resulting in the trial and execution of Charles I, the exile of his son Charles II, and the establishment of the English Commonwealth under the rule of Oliver Cromwell.


A 1643 illustration of the perceived danger of the king’s “body politic”: half papist and half cavalier

The Militia Ordinance, 5 March 1642 Top
Source: Keith Lindley. 1998. The English Civil War and Revolution: a sourcebook. New York: Routledge.

An ordinance of the Lords and Commons in parliament, for the safety and defence of the kingdom of England, and dominium of Wales.

Whereas there hath been of late a most dangerous and desperate design upon the House of Commons, which we have just cause to believe to be an effect of the bloody counsels of papists and other ill-affected persons, who have already raised a rebellion in the kingdom of Ireland, and, by reason of many discoveries, we cannot but fear they will proceed not only to stir up the like rebellion and insurrections in the kingdom of England, but also to back them with forces from abroad; for the safety, thereof, of his majesty’s person, the parliament, and kingdom, in this time of imminent danger, it is ordained by the Lords and Commons now in parliament assembled that Henry earl of Holland shall be lieutenant of the county of Berkshire [the lieutenants for each county and place named] and severally and respectively have power to assemble and call together all and singular his majesty’s subjects, within the said several and respective counties and places, as well within liberties as without, that are meet and fit for the wars; and them to train, exercise, and put in readiness; and them, after their abilities and faculties, well and sufficiently, from time to time, to cause to be arrayed and weaponed, and to take the muster of them in places most fit for that purpose. And the aforesaid Henry earl of Holland [and the other named lieutenants] shall severally and respectively have power, within the several and respective counties and places aforesaid, to nominate and appoint such persons of quality as to them shall seem meet, to be their deputy lieutenants, to be approved of by both Houses of Parliament….And the aforesaid Henry earl of Holland [and the others] shall have power to make colonels and captains, and other officers, and to remove them out of their places, and make others from time to time, as they shall think fit for that purpose. And [they], their deputy or deputies, in their absence, or by their command, shall have power to lead, conduct, and employ the persons aforesaid, arrayed and weaponed, for the suppression of all rebellions, insurrections, and invasions, that may happen within the several and respective counties and place; and shall have further power and authority to lead, conduct, and employ the persons aforesaid, arrayed and weaponed, as well within their said several and respective counties and places as within any other part of this realm of England, or dominium of Wales, for the suppression of all rebellions, insurrections and invasions that may happen, according as they from time to time shall receive directions from the Lords and Commons assembled in parliament….

A Declaration of the Severall Votes and Resolutions Agreed upon by both Houses of Parliament, 1642 Top
Source: Parliament. A Declaration of the Severall Votes and Resolutions Agreed upon by both Houses of Parliament , 1642. London: Printed for John Thomas. Accessed from http://digital.library.umsystem.edu/

A Declaration of the Severall Votes and Resolutions Agreed upon by both Houses of Parliament.
Being in all 32.
For the safety of His Majesties person, the defence of the Kingdome, and the security of both Houses of Parliament, and the Privildged thereof.
Whereunto is Annexed the Votes, at which His Majestie takes exceptions at.
Ordered that these Votes and Resolutions be Printed and Published.

Jo. Brown Cleric. Parli.

London, Printed for John Thomas. 1642.

Questions Resolutions and Votes by both Houses of Parliament, touching the Militia.

1. That His Majesties Answer is denyall to the desires of both Houses of Parliament concerning the Militia.
2. That those that advised His Majestie to give this Answer are Enemies of the State, and mischievous projectors against the defence of the Kingdome.
3. That this deniall is of that dangerous consequence, that if His Majestie shall persist in it, it will hazard the Peace and safety of all His Kingdomes, unlesse some speedy remedy be applyed by the wisdome and Authority of both Houses of Parliament.
4. That such parts of this Kingdome as have put themselves into a posture of defence against, the Common danger, hath done nothing but what is Justifiable, and is approved by the House.
5. That his Majesty removing into any remote parts from His Parliament, will bee a great hazard to the Kingdome; and a great prejudice to the proceedings of Parliament.
6. That these Houses hold it necessary, that His Majesty may be desired, that the Prince may come unto Saint Jameses, or to some other convenient place neereabout London, and there to continue.
7. That the Lords bee desired to joyne with this House in an humble request unto His Majestie, that he will be pleased to reside near His Parliament, that both Houses may have a convenience of Accesse unto him upon all occasions.
8. That the Lords bee moved to joyne eith this House in some fit course of examination, to find who were the persons that gave His Majesty this advice, that they may be removed from His Majesty this advice, that they be removed from His Majesty, and brough to condigne punishment.
9. That no Charter can be granted by the King, to create a power in any corporation over the Militia of that place, without consent of Parliament.
10. That the Lords be moved to joyne with this House in these votes.
11. That the Lords shall be desired to appoint a select Committee, that may joyn with a Committee of a proportionable number of this House, to consider and prepare what is fit to bee done upon these votes, or upon any [???] that may arise upon this Answer of His Majesty concerning the Militia, and concerning the Prince.
12. The the Kingdome be forthwith put into a posture of defence by the Authority of both Houses, in such a way as is already agreed upon by both Houses of Parliament.
13. That the Lords be desired to joyne, with the House of Commons in this vote.
14. That a Committee shall be appointed to prepare a Declaration upon these two heads. viz.
1. To lay downe the just causes of the feares and jealousies given to these Houses and to cleare these Houses from any jealousies conceived against them.
2. And to consider all matters that may arise up on this message of His Majesty, and to declare their opinions what is fit to be done thereupon.
15. That Sir John Hotham Knight according to this relation, hath done nothing but in obedience to the Command of both Houses of Parliament.
16. That this declaring of Sir John Hotham Traytour, being a Member of the House of Commons, is a high breach of the priviledge of Parliament.
17. That this declaring of Sir John Hotham Traitour, without due processe of Law is against the liberty of the Subject, and against the Law of the Land.

Ordered by the Lords and Commons in Parliament, that these votes shall be printed, and sent to the Sheriffes and Justices of the Peace, to be published in all Market Townes of the Counties of York and Lincolne.

Votes in Parliament concerning Serjeant Major Generall Skippon.

18. That the Command of His Majesty to call Captain Philip Skippon, Serjeant Major Generall of the forces of London, to attend his Majesties person at Yorke, is gainst the Law of the Land, and the libertie of the Subject.
19. That this Command of His Majesty to call Captain Philip Skippon, Serjeant Major Generall of the forces of London, to attend His Majesties Person, being imployed by both Houses, to attend their service, without their consent is against the priviledge of Parliament.,
20. That Captain Philip Skippon, Serjeant Major Generall of the forces of London, shall continue to attend the service of both Houses, according to their former Commands.

Hen. Elsing, Cleric. Parl. D.C.

Votes touching the Members of both Houses.
21. That this House doth declare that if any person whatsoever shall arrest, or Imperson the persons of the Lords and Gentlemen, or any of them: Or any other of the Members of either House of Parliament, that shall be imployed in the service of both Houses of Parliament, or shall offer violence to them, or any of them, for doing any thing in pursueance of the Commands or Instructions of both Houses, shall be held disturburs of the proceedings of Parliament, and publicke Enemies of the State; And that all persons are bound by their Protestation to endeavour to bring them to condigne punishment.
22. That this House doth declare that all those of the City of London, and all other persons, that have obeyed the Ordinance for Militia, and done anything in execution thereof, have done according to the Law of the Land, and in pursuance of what they were Commanded by both Houses of Parliament, and for the defence and safety of the King and Kingdome, and shall have the assistance of both Houses of Parliament, against any that shall presume to question them for yielding their obedience unto the said Commands in this necessary and Important Service, and that whosoever shall obey the said Ordinance for the time to come, shall receive the approbation and assistance from both Houses of Parliament.
23. That this House doth declare that they are Resolved to maintaine those Lords and Gentlemen in those things they have done, and shall further doe in the obedience of their commands, for the preserving of the peace of the Kingdome.

Votes touch His Majesties taking up Armies.

24. That it appears that the King (seduced by wicked Councell) intends to make warre against the Parliament, who (in all their consultations and actions) have proposed no other end unto themselves, but the care of his Kingdome, and the performance of all duty loyalty to His Person.
25. That whensoever the King maketh Warre upon the Parliament, it is a breach of the trust reposed in him by his people, contrary to his oath, and tending to the dissolution of this Government.
26. That whosoever shall serve or assist him in such warres, are Traytors, by the fundamentall lawes of the Kingdome, and have been so adjudged by two Acts of Parliament.
27. That the Kings absence to farr remote from his Parliament, is not onely an obstruction, but many be a distraction to the affaires of Ireland.
28. That when the Lords and Commons shall declare what the Law of the Land is, to hav ethis not only questioned and contraverted, but contradicted, and a Command that it should not be obeyed, is a high breach of the Priviledge of Parliaments.
29. That those Persons that advised his Majesty to absent himselfe from the Parliament, are Enemies to the peace of the Kingdome; and justly to be suspected to be favourers of the Rebellion in Ireland.
30. That the Kingdome hath beene of lat, and still is in an evident and eminent danger, both from Enemies abroad, and a Popist and discontented party at home; That here is an urgent and invitable necessity of putting his Majesties Subjects into a posture of defence, for the safeguard both of his Majesty and his People.
31. That the Lords and Commons fully apprehending this danger, and being sensible of their owne duty, to provide a sutable prevention; have in severall Petitions addressed themselves to his Majesty, for the ordering and disposing of the Militia of the Kingdom, in such a way as was agreed upon by the Wisdome of both Houses to be most effectuall and proper for the present exigents of the Kingdome, yet could not obtaine it; but his Majesty did severall times refuse to give Royall assent therunto.
32. That in this case of extreme danger, and His Majesties refusall of the Ordinance of Parliament: Agreed upon by both Houses for the Militia, doth oblige the People, and ought to be obeyed by the Fundamentall Lawes of this Kingdome.


A Declaration of the Lords and Commons Assembled in Parliament, July 13, 1642 Top
Source: Parliament. A Declaration of the Lords and Commons Assembled in Parliament, July 13, 1642. London: Printed for Edward Husbands and John Franck. Accessed from http://digital.library.umsystem.edu/

A DECLARATION OF THE Lords and Commons NOW ASSEMBLED IN PARLIAMENT, Concerning The miserable distractions and grievances this Kingdom now lieth in, by meanes of Jesuiticall and wicked Councellors now about His MAJESTIE.

Ordered by the Lords and Commons, That this Declaration be forthwith Printed and published,

Hen. Elsinge, Cler. Parl. D. Com.

IT cannot be unknown to the world, how powerfull and active the wicked Councellors about His Majesty have been, both before and since this Parliament, in seeking to destory and extinguish the true Protestant Religion, the Libertie, and Laws of the Kingdom; and that after many traiterous indeavours against the Parliament, by God Providence discovered and frustrated; they drew His Majesty into the Northern parts, and in His Name did publish divers false scandals and ingominious reproaches against the Lords and Commons, making His Majesties Court a sanctuary for all kinde of Delinquents against Justice and priviledge of Parliament, and drawing to York by Letters, and other means, divers Members of both Houses, and setting up there a counterfeit imaginary usage of the great Councell of the Peers, in opposition to the Parliament, to the great danger, not only of the disturbance, but even of the subversion of the originall constitution and frame of this Kingdom.

And that the way to the great change in Religion and Government intended, might be made more easie and passable: many of those who have shewed themselves faitfull to the cause of God and the Kingdom, either in Parliament or in the Country are put out of the Commission of peace, and other publike employments. The Sheriff of Leicester there labouring to keep the peace, when Master Henry Hastings marched from Loughborough in Leicester with about 200 Foot, and 100 Horse, of which, many were drawn out of Durbishire, Armed in a warlike manner, with Pistolls, Pikes, and Muskets, their Drums beating, and Colours flying, intending to seize upon the Magazine of the County, was for his good service put out of his office; and Master Hastings, the person who committed this outrage made Sheriff in his place. Divers great Lords, His Majesties Servants in places of neernesse and trust, Persons of high honour, merit, and abilities; as the Earls of Pembroke, Essex, Holland, and the Lord Feilding displaced, for no other cause but discharging their conscience in Parliament, besides, divers Members of the House of Commons, one of which, hath long served His Majestie in places of Honour, and had alwayes been in great favour and esteem, till he faithfully discharged his duty in Parliament. And last of all, the Earl of Northumberland put from the place of high Admirall, a man so emminent in all quallifications of honour and efficiency, so necessary for the State of this time; when so many ships are at Sea, and the Kingdom in so much trouble and distraction, that there can hardly be named a more mischievous effect of wicked Councell or dangerous preparative to future confusions, then the bereaving the State of the service of so noble and vertuous a Person as he is. The consideration whereof inforceth both Houses to declare, That they cannot think the Kingdom in safety, nor themselves to have discharged the trust which lyes upon them, till they have done their uttermost, by all fit wayes to procure that office to be restored, whereby the Commander of the Ships which are the Walls of the Kingdom, may again [???] in the charge of that noble Lord.

In the midst of these unjust and distructive courses to blinde the eyes of the multitude, and disguise their malicious and cruell intentions under the semblance of peace and Justice, they have drawn his Majesty to make divers solemn Protestations, with fearfull imprecations upon Himself, and invocations of Gods holy name, That He intended nothing but the peace and welfare of His people, the maintenance of Religion, and the Laws of the Kingdom, and for His own security onlu, to raise a guard for His Person. And that He did from His Soul abhor the thought of making Warre against the Parliament, or to put the Kingdom into a combustion; but having under this colour, kept about him, divers Souldiers and Officers, and gathered some strength, the intentions do now appear with a more open face, but these His Majesties ensuring actions, and proceedings.

Which the Lords and Commons have thought good to publish, That all the Subjects of the Kingdom may understand, what dangers and miseries are coming upon them, if not timely prevented.

A Garrison of Souldiers is by His Majesties Order put into Newcastle, under the Command of the Earl of New castle, who should have formerly seized upon Hull, if by the Wisedom of the Parliament benad[??] not been prevented.

The papists in Cheshire have lately, in a very peremptory manner, and in His Majesties Name, demanded their Arms, taken from them by direction of both Houses of Parliament, to be again restored to them. The Earl Rivers, lately a notorious profest papist, and still suspected to be a papist, although he now comes to Church, as many other dangerous papists do, on purpose, as is conceived, to make themselves capable of employment, is put into the Commission of Array, being against Law, and the Liberty of the Subject, which he hath executed with rigour, and hath committed to divers persons to prison for refusing to submit thereunto, contrary to the Law, and the position of the Right.

The mouth of the River Tyne is fortified, whereby the whole Trade of Newcastle for Cole or otherwise, will be subject to be interrupted whensoever His Majesty shall please, and the City of London, and many other parts of the Kingdom exceedingly burthened and distressed.

A Ship laden with Canon for Battery, and other lesser Ordnance, powder, and Ammunition is come into the River of Humber, which also hath broughr divers Commanders from forraign parts; and in this ship, as we are credibly informed, were M. Henry Wilmot, Sir John Barkley, and Sir Hugh Pollard, three of those who stand charged in parliament, for being privy to the designe of bringing up the Army; and amongst others the Lord Digby, a person accused in parliament of high Treason, who when he began to be questioned, fled out of the Kingdom, and advised His Majesty by Letters to that course which he hath since pursued, of withdrawing himself from his parliament to a place of Strength, and that then he intended to come to him, and in the mean time would do him service abroad.

Divers other large preparations of Warlike provisions are made beyond the Sea, and shortly expected, besides great number of Gentlemen, Horses, and Arms drawn from all parts of the Kingdom, and all the Gentlemen in Yorkeshire required to bring in their horses for his Majesties Service.

Sundry Commissions are granted for raising horse, and divers Officers of the Army are already appointed.

Upon Monday morning being the fourth of July, His Majesty came to Beverly with an Army of a considerable number of Horse and Foot, some Regiments of the Trained Bands, being likewise commanded to be raised.

Among the Souldiers in this Army, there are divers papists and other persons of desperate fortune, and condition, ready to execute any violence, rapine, and oppression.

Some Troops of Horse are sent into Lincoln-shire, to the great terrour of the well-affected people, who are thereby forced either to forsake their dwellings, or to keep them with armed men.

They begin already to take away mens horses by force, and commit other Acts of Hostility, and have uncivilly used and searcht a Gentleman sent from the Parliament with a Letter to his Majesty.

Provisions are restrained from coming to Hull, and his Majesty is shortly expected to come thither with his Army, notwithstanding the place is in the custody of the Parliament, as hath been often declared to his Majesty by both Houses, and kept by them for his Majesties service, and the peace of the Kingdom; whereof, as soon as they may be secured, they intend to leave the Town in the state it was.

The Warre being thus by his Majesty begun, the Lords and Commons in Parliament hold themselves bound in conscience to raise forces for the preservation of the peace of the Kingdom and protection of the Subjects in their persons and estates, according to Law, the defence and security of Parliament, and of all those who have been employed by them in any publike service for these ends, and thorow Gods blessing to disappoint the designs and expectations of those who have drawn his Majesty to these courses and counsels, in favour of the papists at home, the Rebels in Ireland, the forraign enemies of our Religion and peace.

In the opposing of all which, they desire the concurrence of the well-disposed subjects of this Kingdom, and shall manifest by their courses and endeavours, that they are carried by no respects but of the publike good which they will alwayes preferre before their own lives and fortunes; And shall ever be most earnest in their counsels and endeavours to prevent a Civill War, and those miserable effects it must needs produce, if they may be avoyded without endangerin gthe alteration of Religion, which is the main end of those who have been the Authors and Councellors of his Majestis undertaking this Warre, and will necessarily draw with it a losse of Liberty, and subversion of the Law of the Kingdom; so that it rests onely that the free-born English Nation do consider whether they will adhere to the King and his Parliament, but which they have so long enhoyed all that is dear unto them; or to the King, seduced by Jesuitcall Councell and Cavaliers, who have designed all to slavery and confusion, which by Gods blessing, and our joyus endeavours may be timely prevented.


A Declaration to Justify Parliament’s Proceedings and Resolutions to Take Up Arms, August 4 1642 Top
Source: John Rushworth. Historical Collections of Private Passages of State, Weight Matters in Law, Remarkable Proceedings in Five Parliaments. London: Printed by J.A. for Robert Boulter, 1680-1701. Accessed from www.constitution.org/primarysources/decparliament.html

We the Lords and Commons in Parliament assembled, having taken into serious Consideration, the present State and Condition of imminent Danger in which the Kingdom now stands, by reason of a Malignant Party prevailing with his Majesty, putting him upon violent and perilous Ways, and now in Arms against us, to the hazarding of his Majesty’s Person, and for the Oppression of the true Religion, the Laws and Liberties of this Kingdom, and the Power and Priviledge of Parliament: all of which every honest Mand is bound to defend, especially those who have taken the late Protestation, by which they are more particularly tied unto it; and the more answerable before God, should they neglect it:

Wherefore we finding ourselves ingaged in a Necessity to take up Arms likewise for the Defense of these, which otherwise might suffer and perish, And having used all the good ways and means to prevent Extremities, and preserve the Peace of the Kingdom (which good endeavors of ours the Malignity of our Enemies hath rendered altogether successless and vain) do now think fit to to give this Account unto the World, to be a Satisfaction unto all Men of the Justice of our Proceedings, and a Warning unto those who are involved in the same Danger with us, to let them see the Necessity and Duty which lies upon them, to save themselves, their Religion and Country, for which purpose we set out this ensuing Declaration.

…We do not grant what is so unreasonable and destructive, forthwith to bring on that Force which is prepared against us by the Concurrence and Assistance of Papists, an ambitious and discontented Clergie, Delinquents obnoxious to the justice of Parliament, and some ill affected Persons of the Nobility and Gentry, who out of their desire of a dissolute Liberty, apprehend, and would keep off the Reformation intended by Parliament.

These persons have conspired together to ruin this Parliament, which alone hath set a stop to that Violence so long intended, and often attempted for the alteration of Religion, and subversion of the Laws and Liberties of the Kingdom… When they conceived the way to be sufficiently prepared, they at last resolved to put on their Masterpiece in Scotland (where the same method had been followed) and more boldly to unmask themselves, in imposing upon them a Popish Service-Book: For well they knew the same Fate attended both Kingdoms, and Religion could not be altered in the one without the other. God raised the Spirits of that Nation to oppose it, with so much Zeal and Indignation, that it kindled such a Flame, as no Expedient could be found but a Parliament here to quench it.

This Necessity brought on this Parliament, and the same Necessity gave it in the beginning, Power to act with more Vigor and Resolution than the former Parliaments had done, and to set up a Reformation of the great Disorders both in the Ecclesiastical and Civil State, which drew a more particular envy and Odium upon it, than was usual to the generality of Parliament, and was a cause that those who had swallowed up in theirs Thoughts our Religion and Liberties, and now saw themselves defeated by this means, bended all their Endeavors, and raised all their Forces to destroy it…

That done, then come they to crown the Work, and put that in Execution which was first in their Intention, that is, the changing of Religion into Popery and Superstition.

All this which the two Houses of Parliament have, with all Duty and Loyalty, still applyed themselves unto his Majesty, and laboured, by humble Prayers, and clear convincing Reasons and Arguments in several Petitions, to satisfy him of their intentions, the justness of their Proceedings, their desire of the Safety of Royal Person, and of the Peace of the Kingdom…

We have too just a cause to believe and know, considering those continued Designs upon us, and the composition of the King’s Army, and of his Counsel at this time, that these things are desired to be made use of to our Destruction, and the Destruction of that which we are bound by our Protestation to defend, and woe to us if we do not at least do our utmost endeavor in it, for the discharge of our Duties, and the saving of our souls, and leave the Success to God Almighty.

Therefore, we the Lords and Commons, are resolved to expose our Lives and Fortunes for the Defence and Maintenance of the true Religion, the King’s Person, Honour and Estate, the Power and Priviledge of Parliament, and the Just Rights and Liberties of the Subjects.

And for the prevention of that mischievous Design, which gives motion to all the rest, and hath been so strongly pursued these many Years, the altering of our Religion, which if God in his Mercy had not miraculously diverted, long ago had we been brought to the Condition of poor Ireland, weltering in our own Blood and Confusion.

And we do here require all those who have any sense of Piety, Honour or Compassion, to help a distressed State, especially such as have taken the Protestation, and are bound in the same Duty with us unto their God, their King and Country, to come into our Aid and Assistance: This being the true cause for which we raise and Army, under the command of the Earl of Essex, which whom in this Quarrel we will live and die.

His Majesties Speech to the Gentlemen of Yorkshire, 4 August 1642 Top
Source: King Charles I. His Majesties Speech to the Gentlemen of Yorkshire, 4 August 1642. Printed at York and re-printed at London, by A. Norton, 1642. Accessed from http://digital.library.umsystem.edu/


When I directed that Sumons should be sent out for your meeting here this day, my principall end was, That I might give you thanks for the great fowardnesse and expressions you have made of your affections to mee since I came into this Country, and to assure you, That as the whole Kingdome hath great reason to value you exeedingly for it, so I shall be very unsatisfied with my selfe, till I have found some way to fix a mark of favour, and estimation upon this County, and this people, which may tell Posterity, how good subjects you have been, and how much Gentlemen; and I am confident the memory of it wil grow up with my Sons too, in a just acknowledgement. This was the most I intended to say to you, but there is an unquiet Sprit abroad, which every day throws in a new accidents to disturbe, and confound the publike Peace. How I was driven from London, when I chose this place for my safety, is so notorious, that all men know it, who know any thing, with what strange violence, and indignities I have bin pursued, since I cam ither, needs no other Evidence, then sir John Hothams behaviour at Hull, who is now arrived at that insolence, That hee will not suffer his treason to be longer confined within those Walls, but makes sallyes out of the Town, upon his fellow subjects, drowns their land, burns and plunders their houses, murthers, and with unheard of creauly, torments their persons; And this with so much delight, That hee would not have the patience, to wait what Answer should be sent to my jsut demands, though in that respect, I engaged my selfe, to forbeare to use any force, and kept my word, but chose the night before that came, (as if hee well knew what Answer I was to receive) to act those outrages.

You see the sad effects of Feares and jealousies, the miseries they have produced; No man can tell you the least good they have brought forth, or the least evill they have prevented: What inconvenience and burden[?] my presence hath bin here, but disturbance it hath brought upon the publick, or grievance upon any private person, your selves are the best judges; And what ever scandall some men have pleased to cast upon the Vabaliers (which they intend should reach all my Retinew, and by degrees shall involve all Gentlemen) I am confident, there hath not bin any eminent disorder or damage befalne any man, by any person of my Train, or under my protection.

I am sure my directions have been very strict in that point, and if they had not been observed, I think

I should have heard of it by neerer complaints, then from London. I pray God the same care may be taken there: I am sure it hath not been. And to give you the fullest testimony of by affection to you, and to the peace of this County and to shew you that no provocation shall provoke me to make this place to be the seat of the war, I have for your sakes, passed over the Considerations of Honour; and not withstanding the reproaches every day laid on me, laid no siege to that place, that they may not have the least pretence of doing you mischief, but resolve, by Gods help to recover Hull some other way, for that I will ever sit down under so bold and unexcusable a Treason no honest man can imagine. But it seems other men are not of my minde, but resolve to make a War at your own doores, whatsoever you do, or I suffer. TO what purpose else is their new Generall armed with an authority to kill and destroy all my good subjects; their levies of Horse and foot, some whereof are upon their March towards you, with Canon mounted, and the sending so many new souldiers into Hull, when there is no approach made towards it, but to sally out, and to commit Rapine, and by degrees to poure out an Army upon you: In this I must aske your advice, what you would doe for yourselves, what you would have me do for you, you see how I am stript of my Navie at Sea, which is imployed against me, of my Forts and Towns at Land, which are filled with armed men to destory mee, my money and Provisions of my house taken from me, and all my subjects forbid and threatened if they come neer me, that I may by famine or solitarines be compelled to yield to the most dishonorable Propositions, and to put my self and Children into the hands of a few Malignant peersons, who have entered into a Combination to destroy us: And all this done under pretence of a trust reposed by the people. How far you are from committing any such trust, most of the persons trusted by you, and your owne expressions of duty to me, hath manifested to all the World; and how far the whole Kingdom is from avowing such a trust, hath already, in a great measure, and I doubt not will more every day appear, by the professions of every Coutnie: for I am whollly cast upon the affections of my people, and have no hope but in the blessing and assistance of God, the justnesse of my cause, and the love of my Subjects, to recover what is taken from me and them, for I may justly say that they are equall losers with me.

Gentlemen, I desire you to consider what course is to be taken for your own security form the excursions from Hull, and the violence which threatens you from thence: I will assist you any way you propose. Next, I desire you, out of the publicke Provision, or your private Sote, to furnish me with such a number of Arms (Musquets and Corflets) as you may conveniently spare, which I do promise to se fully repaid to you: These Arms I desire may be speedily delivered to the custody of my Lord Major of York, for my use, principally from those parts, which by reason of their distance from Hull are least subject to the feare of violence from thence.

And whosoever shall so furnish mee, shall be excused from their attendance and service at musters, till their Arms shall be restored, which may well be sooner then I can promise, or you expect. I desire nothing of you but what is necessary to be done for the preservation of the Gods true Religion, the Laws of the Land, the Liberty of the Subject, and the very being of this Kingdom of England: for ‘tis too evident all these are at stake.

For the compleating my sonnes Regiment for the guard of my Person, under the command of my Lord Cumberland, I refer it wholly to your selves, who have expressed such fowardnesse in us.


A Declaration of the Lords and Commons Assembled in Parliament, August 9, 1642 Top
Source: Parliament. A Declaration of the Lords and Commons Assembled in Parliament, August 9, 1642. London: Printed for Edward Husbands and John Franck. Accessed from http://digital.library.umsystem.edu/


For the raising of all power, and Force, as well Trained Bands as others, in severall Counties of this Kingdom.

To leade against all Traytors and their Adherents, and them to Arrest and Imprison and to fight with, Kill, and Slay all such as shall oppose any of His Majesties loving Subjects, that shall be imployed in this Service, by either or both Houses of PARLIAMENT.

Together With His Majesties DECLARATION In Answer to the same.

Whereas certain Information is given from severall parts of the Kingdom, That divers Troops of Horse are imployed in sundry Counties of the Kingdom, and that others have Commission to raise both Horse and Foot, to compell His Majesties Subjects to submit to the Illegall Commission of Array, out of a Trayterous  intent, to subvert the liberty of the Subject, and the Law of the Kingdom; And for the better strengthning themselves in this wicked attempt, Do joyn with the Popish and Jesuitcall faction, to the Kingdom into a combustion and civill warre, by levying forces against the Parliament; and by these Forces to alter the Religion, and the ancient Government, and lawfull Liberty of the Kingdom; and to introduce Popery and Idolatry, together with an Arbitrary Form of Government: And in pursuance thereof, have Traiterously and Rebelliously, levyed War against the King, and by force, robbed, spoiled, and slain divers of His Majesties good Subjects, travelling about their lawfull and necessary occasions, in the Kings Protection according to Law; and namely, That for the end and purpose aforesaid, The Earl of Northampton, the Lord Dunsmore, Lord Willoughby of Eresby, Son to the Earl of Linsey, Henry Hastings Esquire: and divers other unknown Persons in the Counties of Lincoln, Nottingham, Leicester, Warwick, Oxford, and other places, the Marquesse of Hertford, the Lord Paulet, Lord Seymer, Sir John Stawell, Sir Ralph Hopton, John Digby Esq. and other their Accomplices, have gotten together great Forces in the County of Sommerset. The Lords and Commons in Parliament, duely considering the great dangers which may ensue upon such their wicked and Trayterous designes, and if by this meanes the Power of the Sword should come into the Hands of Papists and their Adherents, nothing can be expected but the miserable ruine and desolation of the Kingdome, and the bloody Massacre of the Protestants.

They doe Declare and Ordain, That it is, and shall be lawfull, for all His Majesties loving Subjects, by force of Arms to resist the said severall Parties, and their Accomplices, and all other that shall raise or conduct any other Forces for the ends aforesaid, and that the Earl of Essex Lord Generall, with all his Forces raised by the authority of Parliament: as likewise the Lord Say, Lieutenant of Oxfordshire, Earl of Peterborough, Lieutenant of Northamtonshire, Lord Wharton, Lievtenant of Buckinghamshire, Earl of Stamford Lieutenant of Leicestershire, Earl of Pembrook Lieutenant of Wiltshire and Hampshire, Earl of Bedford Lieutenant of Sommersetshire and Devon, Lord Brook Lieutenant of Warwickshire, the Lord Cramborne Lieutenant of Dorsetshire, the Lord Willoughby of Parham Lieutenant of Lincolnshire, and all those who are, or shall be appointed by Ordinance of both Houses, to perform the Place of Deputy Lieutenants, and their Deputy Lieuenants respectively, Densill Hollis Esquire, Lieutenant of the City and County of Bristoll, and the Majors and Sheriffes of the City, and Deputy Lieutenants there, and all other Lieutenants of Counties, Sheriffs, Majors, Deputy Lieutenants, shall raise all their Power and Forces of their severall Counties, as well Trained Bands as others, and shall have power to conduct, and leade the said Forces of the said Counties against the said Traytors and their Adherents, and with them to fight, kill and slay, all such as by Force shall oppose them; and the persons of the said Traitors and their Adherents and Accomplices to arrest and imprison, and them to bing up to the Parliament, to answer this their Traiterous and Rebellious attempts according to Law, and the same, or any other Forces, to transport and conduct from one County to another in aide and assistance one of another, and of all others that shall joybe with the Lords and Commons in Parliament for the defence of the Religion of Almighty GOD, and of the Liberties and peace of the Kingdome, and in pursuit of those wicked and Rebellious Traitors, their Conspirators, Ayders and Abettors and Adherents; Requiring all Lieutenants of Counties, Sheriffs, Majors, Justices of Peace and others His Majesties Officers and loving Subjects to be ayding and assisting to one another, in the execution hereof, and for their so doing all the the [sic] parties above mentioned; and all others that shall joyn with them, shall be justified, defended, and secured by the power and authority of Parliament.


King’s Message to the Parliament, 25 August 1642 Top
Source: Sir Charles Petrie, ed. 1968. The Letters, Speeches and Proclamations of King Charles I. London: Cassell & Company LTD.

We have, with unspeakable grief of heart, long beheld the distractions of this our kingdom. Our very soul is full of anguish, until we may find some remedy to prevent the miseries which are ready to overwhelm this whole nation with a civil war. And though all our endeavours, tending to the composing of those unhappy differences betwixt us and our two Houses of Parliament (though pursued by us with all zeal and sincerity) have been hitherto without that success we hoped for; yet such is our constant and earnest care to preserve the public peace, that we shall not be discouraged from using any expedient which, by the blessing of the God of mercy, may lay a firm foundation of peace and happiness to all our subjects. To this end observing that many mistakes have arisen by the messages, petitions, and answers, betwixt us and our two Houses of Parliament, which happily may be prevented by some other way of treaty, wherein the matters in difference may be more clearly understood and more freely transacted, we have thought fit to propound to you, that some fit persons may be by you enabled to treat with the like number to be authorized by us, in such a manner, and with such freedom of debate, as may best tend to that happy conclusion which all good men desire, the peace of the kingdom; when, as we promise, in the word of a king, all safety and encouragement to such as shall be sent to us, if you shall choose the place where we are for the treaty (which we wholly leave to you), presuming of the like care of the safety of those we shall employ, if you shall name another place; so we assure you and all our good subjects that (to the best of our understanding) nothing shall be therein wanting, on our part, which may advance the true Protestant religion, oppose Popery and superstition, secure the law of the land (upon which is built as well our just prerogative as the property and liberty of the subject), confirm all just power and privileges of Parliament, and render us and our people truly happy, by a good understanding betwixt us and our two Houses of Parliament. Bring with you as firm resolution to do your duty; and let all our good people join with us in our prayers to Almighty God, for His blessing upon this work. If this proposition shall be rejected by you, we have done our duty so amply, that God will absolve us from the guilt of any of the blood which must be spilt. And what opinion soever other men may have of our power, we assure you nothing but our Christian and pious care to prevent the effusion of blood hath begot this motion; our provision of men, arms, and money, being such as may secure us from further violence, till it please God to open the eyes of our people.

King’s Message to Parliament of 11 September, 1642 Top
Source: Parliament. King’s Message to Parliament of 11 September, 1642 London: Printed for J. Wright, 17 Septemb. 1642. Accessed fromhttp://digital.library.umsystem.edu/

To Our Right Trusty and Wellbeloved, The Speaker of the House of Peeres.

We have taken most waies, use most endeavours, and made most reall expressions to prevent the present distractions and dangers; let all the world judge, as well by former passages as by Our two last Messages, which have been so fruitlesse, that though we have defended to desire and presse it, not so much as a treaty can be obtained, unlesse we would denude our selfe of all force to defend us from a visible strength marching against us, and admit those persons as Traitors to Us who according to their duty, their oathes of Aliegiance, and the Law, have appeared in defence of Us their King and Liege Lord, whom We are bound in Conscience and Honour to preserve, though We disclaimed all Our Proclamations and Declarations, and erecting Our Standard as against Our Parliament: All We have now left in Our power is to expect the deepe sense We have of the publique misery of this Kingdome, in which we involved that of our distressed protestants of Ireland, and to apply ourselfe to our necessary defence, wherein we wholly rely upon the providence of God, and the Justice of our cause, and the affection of our good people, so far we are from putting them out of Our protection, when you shall desire a treaty of Us, We shall piously remember whose blood is to be spily in this quarrell, and cheerrefully embrace it. And as no other reason induced Us to leave our City of London, but that with honour and safety we could noy stay there nor raise any force, but for the necessary defence of Our Person, and the Law, against levies in opposition to both, so we shall suddenly and most willingly return to the one and disband the other as soone as those causes shall be removed. The God of Heaven direct you and in mercy divert those judgements which hang over this Mation, and so deale with Us and our Posterity as we desire the preservation, and advancement of the true Protestant Religion the Law and liberty of the Subject, the suit rights of Parliament, and the peace of the Kingdome.


The Humble Answer of the Lords and Commons Assembled in Parliament, to His Majesties last Message the 11 September, 164 Top
Source: Parliament. The Humble Answer of the Lords and Commons Assembled in Parliament, to His Majesties last Message the 11 September, 1642 London: Printed for J. Wright, 17 Septemb. 1642. Accessed from http://digital.library.umsystem.edu/

To the Kings most Excellent Majesty,

The Humble Answer of the Lords and Commons Assembled in Parliament, To His Majesties last Message the 11 September, 1642.

With a true Coppy of the Message.

16 Septemb. 1642.

Ordered by the Lords in Parliament, That this Message with the Answer shalbe forthwith printed and published.

J. Brown Cler. Parliamentorum.

London, Printed for J. Wright. 17 Septemb. 1642.

May it please Your Majesty,

Wee the Lords and Commons in Parliament Assembled, do present this our humble Answer to your Majesties message of the 11. of this instant moneth of Septemb. When we consider the oppressions, rapines, firing of houses, murthers, (even at this time whiest your Majesty propounds a Treaty) Committed upon your good Subjects by your Souldiers, in the presence, and by the authority of their commanders, being of the number of those whom your Majesty holds your selfe bound in honour and conscience to protect as persons doing their duties; wee cannot thinke your Majesty hath done all that in you lies to prevent or remove the present distractions, nor so long as your Majesty will admit no peace without securing the Authors and Instruments of these mischiefes from the justice of the Parliament, which yet shall be ever dispenc’d with all requisite moderation, and distinction of offences, although some of those persons be such in a whole preservation to your Kingdome cannot be safe, nor the unquestionable rights and priviledges of Parliament be maintained: without which, the power and dignity thereof will fall into comptempt: We beseech your Majesty therefore to consider your expressions, That God shall deale with you and your posterity as your Majesty desires the preservation of the just rights of Parliament, which being undeniable in the trying of such as we have declared to be Delinquents, we shall beleeve your Majesty, both towards your selfe and Parliament, will not in this priviledge we are most sensible of, deny us that which belongs unto the meanest Court of Justice in this Kingdome: neither hath your Majesty cause to complained that you are denyed a Treaty, when we offer all that a Treaty can produce, or your Majesty expect, security, honor, service, obedience, support, and all other effects of an humble loyall and faithfull subjection; and seeke nothing, but that our Religion, Liberty, Peace of the Kingdome, safty of the Parliament, may be secured from the open violence, and cunning practices of a wicked party, who have long plotted our ruine and destruction: And if there were any cause of Treaty, we know no competent persons to Treate betwixt the King and Parliament: And if both cause and persons were such as to invite Treaty, the season is altogether unfit, whilest your Majesties Standard is up, and your Proclamations and Declarations unrecalled, whereby your Parliament is charged with Treason.

If Your Majesty shall persist to make Your selfe a shield and defence to those instruments, and shall continuye to reject our faithfull and necessary advice, for securing and maintaining Religion and Liberty, with the peace of the Kingdome, and safety of the parliament, we doubt not but to indifferent judgments it will easily appeare who is most tender of that innocent Blood which is like to be spilt in this cause, Your Majesty, who by such persisting, doth danger your selfe, and your Kingdomes, or we who are willing to hazzard ourselves to preserve both. We humbly beseech Your Majesty to consider, how impossible it is, that any Portestation, though published in Your Majesties Name, of Your tendernesse of the miseries of Your Protestant Subjects in Ireland, of your resolution to maintaine the protestant Religion, and Lawes of this Kingdom, can give satisfaction to reasonable and indifferent men, when at the same time divers of the Irish Traytors and Rebels, the knowne favourers of them, and agents for them, are admitted to Your Majesties presence with grace and favour, and some of them imployed in Your service: when the Cloathes, Munition, Horses, and other necessaries bought by Your Parliamen, and sent for the supply of the Army against the Rebels there, are violently taken away, some by Your Majesties command, others by Your ministers, and applied to the maintenance of an unnaturall warre against Your people here.

All this notwithstanding, as we never gave your Majesty any just cause of withdrawing Your selfe from your great Councell, so it hath ever been and shall ever be farre from us to give any impediment to your returne, or to neglect any proper meanes of curing the distempers of the Kingdome, and closing the dangerous breaches betwixt your Majesty and your Parliament, according to the great trust which lies upon us. And if your Majesty shall now be pleased to come backe to Your Parliament, without Your Forces, we shall be ready to secure your Royall Person, your Crowne and Dignity with our lives and fortuens; your presence in this your great Councell being the onely means of any Treaty betwixt your Majesty and them, with hope of successe.

And in none of our desires to your Majesty and the whole World, that in all things done by us, we faithfully intend the good of your Majesty, and of your Kingdomes. And that we will not be diverted from this end by any private or selferespects whatsoever.

The Wellington Declaration, September 19, 1642 Top
Source: Sovereign (1625-1649 : Charles I), Charles King of England, 1600-1649. London: Printed by Robert Barker, Printer to the Kings most Excellent Majestie: And by the Assignes of John Bill, 1642. Accessed from http://name.umdl.umich.edu/A78741.0001.001


You have heard these Orders read; It is your part in your severall places to observe them exactly: The time cannot be long before We come to Action, therefore you have the more reason to be carefull: And I must tell you, I shall be very severe in the punishing of those, of what condition soever, who transgresse these Instructions.

I cannot suspect your Courage & Resolution; your Conscience and your Loyaltie hath brought you hither to fight for your Religion, your King, and the Laws of the Land; you shall meet with no Enemies, but Traitours, most of them Brownists, Anabaptists, and Atheists, such who desire to destroy both Church and State, and who have already condemned you to ruine for being Loyall to Us. That you may see what use I mean to make of your valour, if it please God to blesse it with Successe, I have thought fit to publish my Resolution to you in a Protestation, which when you have heard Me make, you will beleeve you cannot fight in a better Quarrell; in which I promise to live and die with you.

His Majesties Protestation.

I do promise in the presence of Almighty God, and as I hope for his Blessing and Protection, That I will to the utmost of my power defend and maintain The true Reformed Protestant Religion, established in the Church of England; And by the Grace of God in the same will live and die.

I desire to govern by the known Laws of the Land, and that The Liberty and Property of the Subject may be by them preserved with the same Care as my own just Rights. And if it please God, by his Blessing upon this Armie raised for my necessary Defence, to preserve me from this Rebellion: I do solemnly and faithfully Promise in the light of God, to maintain The just Priviledges and Freedom of Parliament, and to govern by The known Laws of the Land to my utmost power, and particularly to observe inviolably The Laws consented to by me this Parliament. In the mean while, If this time of War and the great necessitie and Graits[?] I am now driven to beget any violation of those, I hope it shall be imputed by God and Man to the Authors of this war, and to me, who have so carefully laboured for the Preservation of the Peace of this Kingdom.

When I willingly fail in these particulars, I will expect no Aid or Relief from any man, or Protection from Heaven; But in this Resolution I hope for the cheerfull Alliance of all good men, and am confident of Gods Blessing.


His Majesties Declaration to all his loving Subjects, October 1642 Top
Source: Sovereign (1625-1649 : Charles I), Charles King of England, 1600-1649. Oxford: Printed by His Majesties Command at Oxford, By Leonard Lichfield Printer to the University, 1642. Accessed from http://name.umdl.umich.edu/A78741.0001.001

HIS MAJESTIES DECLARATION TO ALL HIS LOVING SUBJECTS Upon occasion of a late printed paper, ENTITULED, A DECLARATION AND PROTEstation of the Lords and Commons in Parliament to this Kingdom, and the whole World, of the22dof October.

IF in truth the framers of this Declaration are not engaged by any private passion or respect, by any evill intention to Our Person, or designe to the prejudice of Our Just Honour and Authority, to rayse these forces and Army against Us (as they call Almighty God to witnesse they are not) they will think it their duty to disclaime the Protection of the Conductors of that Army, who the next day after this so solemne Protestation, used their utmost power by the strength of that Army to have destroyed Us, and put Our Person (for whose defence they would make the world believe this Army is raised) into as much danger as the skill and malice of desperate Rebells could doe, otherwise this Protestation now made, will appeare of the same nature with those by which they promised to make Us a glorious King, when by their ninteen Propositions they endeavoured to strip Us of all those Rights which made Us a King, and them Subjects.

What those Actions and proceedings have been which have manifested their Loyalty and Obedience unto Us, will be as hard to find, as their humble Petitions and Remonstrances, when in truth their Actions have been the greatest scornes of Our Authority, and their Petitions the greatest reproaches and challenges of Us, which any age have produced; And we have not only the cleer evidence of Our own Conscience, but the testimony of all good men, that Wee left no Action unperformed on Our part, which might have prevented the misery and confusion which the Ambition, Fury, and Malice of these seditious Persons have brought upon this poor Kingdom, neither is there any thing wanting to the happinesse of Church and State, but that Peace and Order which the faction of these men have robbed them off.

But they directed their Generall the Earle of Essex to deliver an humble Petition to Vs, wherein they desire nothing from Us, but that We would returne in peace to Our Parliament, and by their faithfull Counsell and advice compose the distempers and confusions abounding in Our Kingdoms, as We are bound to doe. Wee were never so backward in receiving, or so slow in answering the Petitions of either or both Our Houses of Parliament, that there was need by an Army to quicken Us, which either or both Houses of Parliament have in no case no more shadow of Right or Power to rayse by any Law, Custome, or Priviledge, then they have by their votes to take away the lives and fortunes of all the Subjects of England; yet the Framers of this Declaration take it unkindly that upon their profession in the sight of Almighty God (which is they say the strongest assurance that any Christian can give) We did not put Our selfe into their hands (those hands which were lifted up against Us, and filled at that time with Armes to destroy Us) and leave a strength God had supplied Us with, of good and faithfull Subjects, who notwithstanding all their threats and menaces had brought themselves to Our Assistance. If that Petition had been so humble as they pretended, they would not have lost the advantage of publishing it in this their Declaration, that the World might as well have been witnesse of our refusall of Peace, as it hath been of their disdain of any way to it, when they rejected Our severall earnest offers of a Treaty.

But why did they not send this humble Petition? His Excellence twice sent unto Us for a safe conduct for those who should be imployed therein, and We refused to give any, or to receive this humble and dutifull Petition. Sure when Our good Subjects shall understand the strange enmity between these men and truth, the no-conscience they use in publishing, and informing those by whom they pretend to be trusted, things monstrous and contrary to their own knowledge, they will not be lesse offended with their falshood to them, then their Treason to Us. ‘Tis well known We never refused to give admittance to any Message or Petition from either or both Houses of Parliament, their Messengers have been received & entertained not only with that safety, but with that candor, as is due to the best Subjects, when their Errand hath been full of Reproach & Scorn, & the Bringers bold, arrogant, & seditious in their demeanour, and therefore there needed to have been no more scruple made in the delivery of this, then the other Petitions which have been brought Us; the truth is We were no sooner acquainted at Shrewsbury by the Earle of Dorset that he had received a letter from the Earl of Essex intimating that he had a Petition from both Houses to be delivered to Us, and to that purpose asking a safe convoy for those who should be sent, but We returned this Answer, That as We had never refused to receive any Petition from Our Houses of Parliament, so We should be ready to give such a reception and Answer to this as should be fit, and that the bringers of it should come and goe with all safety, only We required that none of those Persons whom We had particularly accused of high Treason should be, by colour of that Petition, imployed to Us. After this We heard no more till a second letter, at least a fortnight after the first, to the Earl of Dorset, informed Us that Our former Answer was declared to be a breach of Priviledge that We would not allow any Messengers to come to Us, that is, that We were not content that such Persons who had conspired Our death, might securely come into Our presence; Our second Answer differed little from Our former, insisting that the addresse should not be made by any of those Persons whom We had particularly accused of high Treason, amongst whom the Earle of Essex himselfe was one, but declaring that Our eare should be still open to heare any Petition from Our two Houses of Parliament: whether this were a denyall from Us to receive their Petition, or whether if Our two Houses of Parliament had indeed desired to Treat with Us by Petition, they might not as well have sent it to Us, as they have done since their Instructions to their Ambassadours into Ireland, and their new Bill for rooting out Episcopacy, and devising a new forme of Church-government, let all the world judge. We have reason to beleeve that the Petition then prepared for Us (if We have seen the true coppy of it) was thought by the Persons trusted for the presenting it, fitter to be delivered after a Battle and full Conquest of Vs, then in the head of Our Army, when it might seeme somewhat in Our power whether We would be deposed or noe.

For that continued dishonest Accusation of Our Inclination to the Papists (which the Authors of it in their own Consciences (which will one day be dreadfull to them) know to be most unjust and groundlesse,) We can say no more, and We can doe no more to the satisfaction of the world, If they know that the Romish Priests have encouraged those of that religion to conforme themselves to the Protestant Religion, by comming to Church, receiving the Sacrament, and taking the Oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy, they are more conversant with the subtilties of them then We are, but We must confesse till We be certain they have found that way to deceive Us, that is, to delude the Lawes which are against them, We shall in Charity beleeve their conformity to be reall, and not pretended; but that any Priests or Jesuites imprisoned have been released by Us out of the Goale of Lancaster, or any other Goale, is as false (to use an expression of their own) as the Father of Lyes could invent, neither are the Persons named in that Declaration to whom Commissions are supposed to be granted for places of Command in this War; so much as known to Us, nor have they any command, or, to Our knowledge, are present in Our Army, and ’tis strange that Our Oathes and Protestations before Almighty God, for the maintenance of the Protestant Religion, should be so slighted in the end of this Declaration, when in the beginning of it, it is acknowledged to be the stronggest obligation and assurance that any Christian can give. We desire to have Our Protestations believed by the evidence of Our Actions.

But they are informed (and that is ground enough for them to lay the basest imputation upon their Soveraigne) that Sir John Henderson, and Colonell Cockram (men of ill report both for Religion and Honesty) are sent to Hamborough and Denmarke; (We thought We should have heard no more newes from Denmark) to rayse forraigne forces and to bring them hither: We have before in Our Declarations (sufficient to satisfy any honest man,) declared Our opinion and resolution concerning Forraigne Force, and We had never greater cause to be confident of security in Our own Subjects, and therefore cannot believe so vile a scandall can make any impression in sober men. Let a List of the Nobility and Gentry about Vs, and in Our service be viewed, and will they not be found the most zealous in the Protestant Religion, the most eminent in Reputation, of the greatest fortunes, and the greatest fame, the most publique Lovers of their Country, and most earnest assertors of the Liberty of the Subject, that this Kingdom hath, how different the Reputation of the principle Ringleaders of this faction and Rebellion is, how carefull they are of imploying virtuous and honest men, is apparent to all the world, when they have entertained all the desperate and necessitous Persons (whereof very many are Papists. which We speak knowingly, as having taken severall of them Prisoners) they can draw to them, and when they supercede a proceeding at the Common-Law for an odious and infamous crime, that M. Criffan may have liberty to keep them company in this Rebellion.

For Our affection and gratious Inclination to the Citty of London, and how farre we are from any such purpose, as these impious men charge Us with, appears in Our late Proclamation, in which We declare the Suburbs to be comprehended as well as the Citties of London and Westminster, to which We doubt not they will give that credit and obedience, as We shall have cause to commend their Loyalty in joyning with Us to suppresse this Rebellion, which uncontroled, in a short time, must make that place most miserable.

For the Oath and Covenant which they threaten Us with, if it be to engage them to doe or not to doe any thing contrary to the Oathes they have already taken of Allegiance and Supremacy, as it cannot oblige them being taken, so We doubt not Our good Subjects will easily discerne that it is a snare to betray and lead them into a condition of the same guilt, and so of the same danger with themselves; And We must therefore declare whosoever shall hereafter suffer himselfe to be cozened by those Stratagems, and take such a voluntary Oath against Us, Wee shall impute it to so much malice, as will render him uncapable of Our Pardon, and shall proceed against him as a desperate Promoter of Sedition, and an Enemy to the Kingdom.

Let all honest men remember the many gratious Acts We have passed this Parliament for the ease and benefit of Our people, that when there was nothing left undone or unoffered by Us, which might make this Nation happy, these mischievous Contrivers of Ruine, instead of acknowledging Our Grace and Justice, upbraided Us with all the Reproaches malice and cunning could invent in a Remonstrance to the People (a thing never heard of till that time) that having thus incensed mutinous and seditious mindes, they made use of them to awe the Parliament, drave Us, and the major part of both Houses from Our Citty of London, that they took away Our Fort and Town of Hull from Us, kept Us from thence by force of Armes, and imployed Our own Magazine against Us, that they seized upon Our Royall Navy, and with it chased Our good Subjects, and kept all supply from Us, that they voted away Our negative voyce, and then raised a formidable Army to destroy Us, that when they had thus compelled Us, by the help of such of Our good Subjects who against the fury of these men durst continue loyall, to rayse some power for Our defence, they absolutely and peremptorily refused to treat with Us for the peace of the Kingdome; and lastly that on the 23d of October they brought this Army (raised for the defence of Our Person) into the Field against Us, and used their best skill and means to destroy Us and Our Children, We say whoever remembers and considers this progresse of theirs, will think of no other Covenant then to joyne with Us in the apprehending the Authors of this miserable Civil-Warre, that Posterity may not with shame and indignation finde that a few Schismaticall ambitious persons, were able to bring such a flourishing glorious Kingdom, which hath so long resisted the Envy of Christendome, to a speedy desolation, to satisfy their own pride and Ambition. And We doubt not Our good Subjects of Scotland, will never think themselves engaged by the Act of Pacification (to which We willingly consented) to assist a Rebellion against their own naturall King, for the assistance of Persons accused and notoriously known to be guilty of High Treason, the bringing of whom to condigne punishment, would with Gods blessing, be a speedy means of happinesse and Peace to Our three Kingdoms.


A Declaration and Protestation of the Lords and Commons in Parliament to this Kingdom, and the whole World, October 22, 1642 Top
Source: Parliament. A Declaration and Protestation of the Lords and Commons in Parliament to this Kingdom, and the whole World, 22, 1642. London: Printed for I. Wright. Octob. 24. 1642. Accessed from http://digital.library.umsystem.edu/

A Declaration and Protestation of the Lords and Commons in Parliament, to this Kingdome, and to the whole World.

Wherein (amongst divers of His Majesties late illegall proceedings) is discovered, how severall Commissions under the Kings Authority have been granted to many profest Papists (herein nominated) for places of command in this War, with power to raise men and armes, which in sundry places they have performed.

Also how Sir John Hinderson, and Colonell Cockram, were sent to Hamburg and Denmarke to raise Forces and in other forraigne parts, to bring into this KINGDOME.

With the names of some who have beene proclaimed Rebels in Ireland, now in great favour with his MAJESTIE.

For which and other reasons they are resolved to the uttermost of their power, with the hazard of their lives and fortunes to defend the Truth, against the Popish Army, and all that shall joyne with them in the prosecution of this wicked designe.

Also, an Order of both Houses of Parliament, for the placing of Courts of Guard, Posts, Bars and Chains, in all by-Lanes of severall Parishes adjoyning to this City.

Die Sabbathi, October 22. 1642.

Ordered by the Lords and Commons assembled in Parliament that this Declaration shall be forthwith Printed and published; and read in all Churches and Chappels within the Kingdome of England, and dominion of Wales, by the Parsons, Vicar, or Curates of the same.

John Browne Cler. Parl.

London Printed for F. Coles, and Tho. Bates. 1642.

IT is this day ordered by the Lords and Commons in Parliament, That houses for Courts of Guard, and Posts, Bars, and chaines, be forthwith erected and set up in such places and by-Lanes of the Parishes of S. Margarets Westminster, S Martins in the fields (in the confines of Westminster, S. Clements Danes, S. Mary Savoy, S. Andrewes Holborne, S. Giles in the fields, Coven-Garden, S Iohn-street, S. Iames at Clarken-well, S. Giles Cripplgate, Shorditch, White-Chappell, Islington, Mile-end, Southwarke, Lambeth, or any other place or places, as shall be thought necessary and convanient for the defence and safe guarding of the said Parishes, places and by-Lanes, the charge thereof to be borne by the inhabitants of the severall Parishes aforesaid respectively, who shall be rated and assessed by such persons respectively, as the Lord Lieutenant of that County or any two of his Deputies shall nominate for that purpose. And if any shall refuse to contribute their proportion, then the said persons so to be named to rate and assesse, shall certifie the names of such refusers to the Lord-Lieutenant, or any two of his Deputies, who are to acquaint one or both Houses of Parliament therewith, that such further order may be taken therein as to them shall be thought most convenient; And that a competent number of the Trained-bands and Companies of Voluntiers in and belonging to the said Parishes, shall day and night attend with their Armes in or neer the said Court of Guard; who shall have power and authourity hereby to apprehend, seize and arrest all suspitious persons, Ammunition and Armes, passing through the said Parishes, places, or by-Lanes, or any part of them, untill either of the said Houses of Parliament be made acquainted therewith, and their pleasure be further known concerning the same; And the Captains and Officers of the Trained-Bands and Voluntiers. And the persons here under named are required to take care that the premises be carefully performed accordingly which persons are to be named by the Lord Lieutenant, or any two or more of his Deputy-Lievtenants.

Io. Brown Cler. Parliamentorum.

A Declaration and Protestation of the Lords and Commons Assembled in PARLIAMENT.

WE the Lords and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, do in the presence of Almighty God, for the satisfaction of our Consciences, and discharge of that great trust which lyes upon us, make this protestation and Declaration to this Kingdome and Nation, and to the whole world, that no private passion or respect, no evill intention to his Majesties person, no designe to the prejudice of his just honour and authority, engaged us to raise Forces and take up armes against the authors of this War, wherewith the Kingdome is now inflamed.

And we have alwayes desired from our hearts and soules, manifested in our actions and proceedings, and in severall humble Petitions and Remonstrances to his Majesty, professed our loyalty and obedience to his Crown, readinesse and resolution to defend his person and support his estate with our lives and fortunes to the uttermost of our power.

That we have been willing to passe by, not onely those Injuries, Ignominies, Slanders, and false Accusations, wherewith we have been privately oppressed and grieved, but likewise many publike incroachments, and high usurpations, to the prejudice of Religion and Liberty, divers bloudy, trayterous and cruell practises and designes, for the utter ruine and destruction of the Church and State, so as we might for the time to come have been secured from that wicked and malignant party, those pernicious and Trayterous Counsels, who have beene the Authours and fomentors of the former mischiefes and present calamities which have and still doe distemper this Church and State.

That for the same purpose, and for the avoyding of blood we directed the Earle of Essex Lord Generall by himselfe, or others in some safe and honourable way to cause to be delivered an humble Petition, wherein we doe desire nothing from His Majesty but that he would return in peace to his Parliament, and by their faithfull counsell and advice compose the distemper, and confusions abounding in his Kingdomes, as he is bound to doe, we therein professeth in the sight of Almighty God, which is the strongest obligation that any Christian, and the most solemne publike faith which any such State as a Parliament can give, that we would receive him with all honour, yeeld him all true obedience and subjection, and faithfully endeavour to defend his person and estate from all danger, and to the uttermost of our power to establish to him and to his people, all the blessings of a glorious and happy Raigne, as it is more largely exprest in that Petition.

For the delivery of which Petition, his Excellency hath twice sent unto the King, humbly desiring a safe conduct for those who should be imployed therein, but his Majesty refused to give any such safe conduct, or to receive this humble and dutifull Petition, by any addresse from the Earle of Essex, saying that if Justice had beene done, the Gentleman which brought the second Message could not expect his liberty.

By all which and many other evidences and Inducements, we are fully convinc’t in our judgements and beleefe, that the Kings counsels and resolutions are so engaged to the Popish party, for the suppression and extirpation of the true Religion, that all hopes of peace and protection are excluded, and that it is fully intended to give satisfaction, and to the Papists by alteration of Religion, and to the Cavaliers and other Souldiers, by exposing the wealth of the good subjects, especially of this City of London, to be sackt, plundered, and spoyled by them.

That for the better effecting hereof, great numbers of Papists have in show conformed themselves to the Protestant Religion by comming to the Church, receiving the Sacrament, and taking the oathes of Alegiance and Supremacy, which some of their owne Priests have encouraged them to doe, by maintaining that they might doe all those things and yet continue good Catholicks: Under which cover his Majesty did at first begin to strengthen himselfe, those of that Religion being weake, and unable to endure the envy and discontent which the arming of the Papists would procure in the Kingdome, and therefore endeavuored to keepe off all Jealousies and suspitions by many fearefull oathes and imprecations, concerning his purpose of maintaining the Protestant Religion and the Lawes of the Kingdome; causing some profest Papists to be discharged out of his Army, and none to bee received that would not indure the Test of commidg to Church, receiving the Sacrament, and taking the oathes of Allegiance.

That his Majesty being now growne stronger, and able as he conceives to make good his owne ends by Armes, his confidence in the Priests doth more clearely appeare persons imprisoned for Priests and Jesuits have been released out of the Iale of Lancaster, profest Papists have been invited to rise and take up Armes, Commissions under his Majesties Authority, have been granted to many of them for places of command in this warre, with power to raise men and great numbers have been raised by them, and they dayly encrease, as namely to Sir Nicolas Thornton Sir Tho. Howard Bar. Sir Edwiard Widdington, Sir William Kiddell, Master Smith, of Ash, Master George Wray, Master Edward Gray, of Morpeth Castle, Master Lancelot Errington, of Denico, Master Lancelot Holtby, all of Northumberland, Bishopricke of Durham and New-Castle, to Master Clifton, Master William Walter, Sir William Gerrard, Baronet, Sir Cicill Trafford, Master Anderson of Lostocke in the County of Lancaster, and divers Forces are raised and payed by the Earle of Worcester, and his son the Lord Herbert, and as we are informed by an expresse messenger sent from those parts, the said Lord Herbert, a notorious Papist, is made Generall of all South-Wales; and we are further informed out of Yorke-shire, by divers persons of great worth and quality, that those that raise Forces in these parts for His Majesty doe arme and imploy Papists, and use their advice in their consultations, all which is contrary to the solemne oaths, Protestations and execrations, whereby His Majesty bound himselfe to maintaine the Protestant Religion, and the Lawes of the Land, by which he endeavoured to get a confidence in the people of his good intentions, which how well it is answered, we leave to the world to judge.

That Sir Iohn Hinderson, and Colonell Cockrom, men of ill report both for Religion and honesty, sent to Hamburg and Denmarke, as we are credibly informed, to raise Forces there, and to bring them to New-Castle, and to joyn with the Earle of New-Castle, & the army of Papists, which they intend to raise there, and that divers endeavours have bin used in other forrain parts to bring in strange Forces into the Kingdome, that the K. hath received about him divers Papists of Ireland, some of which are indited of high Treason for their Rebellion there, notoriously known to have been in actuall rebellion, as namely the L. Yaffe, Sir Iohn Oungane proclaimed a Rebell, Colo. Fitz Williams, Doctor Meara indited for the rebellion in Ireland, and fled for the same, and yet appointed Physitian to Prince Rupert, and that His Majesty hath sent for the Petition of the Irish Rebels, which the Justices had stopt, with evident expression of favour to them, whereby that Kingdome is like to become an unfit habitation of any Protestants, and a seminary of war and treason against this Kingdome.

That divers English Traytors, actors in the former designes against the Kingdome and Parliament, are the chiefe Counsellors and actors in this unnaturall warre against his Subjects, as the Lord Digby, O neale, Wilmot, Pollard, Ashburnham and others.

That we have been likewise credibly informed, that diverse Jesuites and Priests in forreigne parts, make great collections of money, for reliefe of the Papists in Ireland, and the furthering of His Majesties designes here against the Parliament, and that by them and some others, fled out of this Kingdome for Treason; great meanes are made to take up the differences betwixt some Princes of the Romane Religion, that so they might unite their strength, for the extirpation of he protestant Religion, wherein principally this Kingdome, and the Kingdome of Scotland are concerned, as making the greatest Body of the Reformed Religion in Christendome, and best able to defend themselves, and succour other Churches.

For all which reasons we are resolved to enter into a solemne Oath and Covenant with God, to give up our selves, our Lives and Fortunes into his hands, and that we will to the uttermost of our power and judgement maintaine his truth, and conforme our selves to his will. That we will defend this cause with the hazard of our lives, against the Kings Army, and against all that shall joyne with them in the prosecution of this wicked designe, according to the forme to be agreed upon by both Houses of Parliament, to be subscribed by our hands, and that we will for the same ends associate our selves, and unite with all the well affected in the City of London, and other parts of His Majesties Dominions.

That we expect our Brethren of Scotland, according to the act of pacification, whereby the two Kingdomes are mutually bound to suppresse all debates and differences, to the disturbance of the publike peace, that they will help and assist us in defence of the Cause, which if the Popish party prevaile, must needs either involve them in that alteration of Religion which will be made here, or ingage them in a War against this kingdome, to defend their own Religion and liberty: And we doubt not but the God of truth, and the great protector of his people, will assist and inable us in this our just defence, to restrain the malice and fury of those that seeke our ruine, and to secure the persons, estates, and liberties of all that joyne with us: And to procure and establish the safety of Religion, and fruition of our Lawes and Liberties, in this and all other His Majesties Dominions, which we doe here againe professe before the everliving God, to be the chief end of all our Counsels and Resolutions, without any intention or desire to hurt or injure His Majesty, either in His Person or just Power.

Die Lunae, 24. October 1642.

IT is this Day Ordered by the Lords and Commons That all People within the Cities of London and

Westminster, and Priveledged Places, Liberties and Suburbs thereof, and in the Borrough of Southwarke be required to shut up their Shops, and for… their Trades and other ordinary Imployments, that so they may w… the greater diligence and freedome for the present attend the defence of the said places, and put in Execution, and performe such Commands for the Defence and safety thereof, as they shall from time to time receive from both Houses of Parliament; the Committee for the defence of the Kingdome, the Lord Generall, or the Lord Maior and Committee for the Militia.

I… Brwne Cler. Parl.


A Plea for the King, 1642 Top
Source: A Plea for the King. Oxford: Printed for Leonard Lichfield, Printer to the University, 1642. Accessed from http://digital.library.umsystem.edu/


He that provoketh a King to anger (saith Salomon) sins against his own soule. I shall not apply this to the Parliament, but will call to minde the severall outragious and mutinous uprisings of the no lesse ignorant, than disobedient multitude, whose Rebellious insurrections gave the first cause of offence to His Majesty, yet I do not acknowledge that affront to be a politick ground for the raising of His Majesties Army, for their desires were satisfied, being appealed with Straffords head: and have we not seen it ordinary both in England and in France, for a King to satisfie the demands of such Rebels, thereby to avoyd a farther inconvenience? Did not K. Richard the 2. grant Pardon to the outragious Rogues and murtherers that followed Jack-Straw and Wat-Tyler, after they had murthered his Chancellor, his Treasurer, Chief Justice, and others, and broke upon his Exchequer, and committed all manner of outrages and villanies, and why did he do it, but to avoyd a greater danger? and shall it be call’d dishonor for King Charls to yeild to the honest desires of His Subjects? no, those that tell the King such tales, fear their own dishonor, not the Kings, for the Honor of the King is Supream, and being guarded by Justice and Piety, it can receive neither wound nor stain, may, King Charls hath shewed Himself in that respect no lesse Royall than his Predecessors, for His offer of Pardon to those that in His opinon were then Traytors, proved much, nay, His frequent and publick recantation as it were of acussing the five Members, and withdrawing His Accusation upon second thoughts, are good premisses to ground this conclusion upon, that he delights in peace, and had rather divulge the prossibility of his own erring, then to be the author of that disquiet, which must have followed through the whole Kingdom, if he had wilfully persisted in a farther prosecution, a rare thing in Princes, and it shewes him as divine as vertuous, in that the restitution he made them was of the same nature, as the wrong he supposeth was offer’d them, both being publique: and is not this a sufficient ground for subjects faith, to believe that his Majesty tenders his subjects welfare as his own, and the preservation of our Lawes equally with that of his own prerogative, or if that suffice not, let his serious and often protestations being kingly, Command that honor you owe him of giving credit to his gratious promises: hath he not desired the just God to deal with him and his, as he deales with us? and shall we prove a faithlesse generation, as if he could flatter with God in whose prsence he hath made those sacred vowes? or as if he could surpasse the Devill himself, in being so unnaturall to his children, as to break those religious protesations, upon the performance of which their welfare wholly consists? we were wont to hold none his equallys, and shall we now take that in the worst sense, making Princes worse than Peasants, not to be believed? Besides, what reason have we now to suspect him, the jealousies of a forraign force being dasht by the command we have gotten of the Seas? or were the coast clear and all passages open, reason cannot yet entertain that fear, for what benefit could be to the King to usher in a forreign force, when as he and his are all subject to the same hazzards that his subjects would in that case undergoe, and the King himself cannot be ignorant, how dangerous a thing it is to call in other Nations both for the psoile they make, as also because they have often held the possessions of the best places with which they have bin intrusted: and he must likewise confide that the greatest losse must at such time be his own, he having most to lose: Besides this, have you not seene these his protestations actuated by the Kings embracing all opportunities for his performance of them: witnesse the Act for the continuance of this Parliament, and for the past unhappy accidents in his government, see the abundant satisfaction he hath given to his people, but damning of Shipmony, and passing the Act for taking downe the Star-chamber and the high Commission Court: and then for his promise to defend the true Protestant Religion, call to mind the great desire of a through Reformation, which his Majesty express’d by passing the Act for taking away of Bishops Voting in the House of Lords, and likewise his desire of a long wished for Synod, his many Proclamations against Jesuits, and for expulsing of Recusants out of his army, all which are evident signes of a well-meaning Prince, and then for the LIberty of Subject which he vows to maintain, consider whether he hath refused to leave even those that have had the greatest share of his princely favour, to the justice of the Law, when they have Trayterously conspired together to subvert the fundamentall Lawes of the Kingdome, or have Trayterously contrived or introduced an arbitrary and tyrannicall government against Law: nay hath he not croft those mercifull desires which received life from his owne breast at first, to fulfull the desires of his people, and waved his owne purpose, the Subjects benefit and advantage carrying a greater stroak with him? witnesse that Letter he sent to the Parliament concerning the execution of my Lord of Strafford, which he desired might be recorded, nay to speak once for all, let me give but Caesar his due, and tell you taht never any age or story could boast of a Prince more free from vice then our sacred Majesty, what though he hath at some time through the importunity of instruments no lesse mischievous to him then to the Kingdom, done that which hath a little thwarted the subjects liberty, must all his acts of grace and goodnesse be buried in oblivion, & a monument prepar’d for his misdeeds, are princes, erratas the only mistakes that came not within the compasse of a possible amendment, ‘twas the Apostles rule to mention the patience of Job, when he was not ignorant of his impatience, which intimates that the good acts of man should be remembered for a pattern to succeeding ages, his bad ones for posterity to avoyd, and had the stars such a malignant aspect in our Horizon at the birth of King Charls, as that his goodnesse must be obscured, and left for posterity to seek out, and his few slips through repented of, made obvious to future ages, no, let the foule mouth’d Zealots learn modesty from those of authority, I mean the Parliament, and let them remember, that humanium est errare.

Can the rude and scandalously unlawfull expressions that some vulgars of our time use, be thought the fruits of a good zealous spirit or have those men discharged their obedience they owe their King, that kick against royall authority, as if God had given them Letters Patents to dispence with their loyalty with a non obstante? if the way to honour God be to dishonor the King, I am sorry I have so long mistaken my self. But ‘tis to be hoped that a settled peace will teach them both their duties and their prayers, yet that must needs give comfort to his Majesty, that they despise not only him, but he that sent him, and that Sect that hold themselves not bound by humane laws, do not owe themselves to an observance of Gods laws, for which if a happy and speedy course be not taken by these of authority, ‘tis to be feared we shall have Innovations in Religion as bad as heresies slwoly creep in, which will at length plead a ???[sawcy] legitimacy by uncontrolled prescription: those people with their irreverent and frequent treasonable speeches, resemble the opacious body of the earth, onterposed to Ec..?? that light and vigour, which the solar aspect of his Majestie would communicate to his subjects, surely ‘twas partly for this purpose (I mean for the Churches good) that the Royall authority summon’d this Parliament, that like Ceacon’s upon high hills, they should discover and proclaim each Innovation and Strategem against either Church or Commonwealth, & these things being in the first place remedied in the Church, the affairs of the Commonwealth will succeed the betters: and taht being done by this happy Parliament, the very punishment of the Anabaptists, Brownists, Seperatists, and I know not what to call them, will speak these times as glorious to posterity in their Reformation, as now they are lamented in their persecution: nunquam prospere succedint res humana ubi negliguntur divine.

The next way for Subjects to enjoy a free quiet and peaceable life, is not to stand too much upon their pantables with their lawfull Prince, what by force they compell their Prince too, by the same authority it is usually broke, but when Kings do freely grant, it is alwayes shamefull to them to withdraw, for ‘twas never suitable to Royall dispositions, to be forced to that which they intend to keep unviolated, and if necessity force them to make a Law at any time, they think a fortiori, that Subjects are liable to the same Law, for ubi cadem est ratioest cadem lex, for though King Edward thtethird was not subject to force, yet he was to necessity, which, because it was violent, he gave way to it, and at the request of the Parliament holden in the fiftieth year of his Raign, he did remove and discharge from his persence the Duke of Lancaster, the Lo: Latimer his Chamberlain, Sir Richard Starry, and others whom he favoured: which being done, he had the greatest gift but one that ever he received in all his days, viz. from every person, man and woman, above the age of fourteen, four pence of old mony, this he had in generall, besides he had every beneficed Priest twelve pence, besides what he had of the Nobility and Gentry. But assoon as he had the mony in his purse, he recall’d the Lords, and restored them, and hwo durst call the King to accompy, when the Asembly was dissolved? Where the sword of a King is, there is power (saith Ecclesiasticus) who shall say unto him what doest thou? Confaularius nemo melier est quam tempus.

And if this were but considered, the blood-thrifting sword of an hostile enemy, by a timely union and preparation may be prevented, and the thin rib’d carkasse of an universall famine may have his consumption restored by a supply from our neighbouring Nations, and the quick spreading venome of an infectious Pestilence may be prevented by antidotes, and quallified by physicall remedies; yea, like the Kings-evill it may be cured, but His Majesties free permission of the Parliaments modost and gentle proceedings, both for His vindicaition, and our preservation therein included. What if the Parliament in their vast wisedom should be content to pardon those great Delinquents on the Kings, must the people therefore murmure at their proceedings, as if they had authority to do nothing but what pleaseth them? or what though those that have done their duties in lending the Parliament Money and Plate, should be content to receive an equall share of that which is yet unspent, and stay for the rst upon the same faith they have for it all, so there might be Peace. Must the irreligious multitude, or those of the fraternity grieve, because of the fair end would then be agreed upon without the effusion of more lond? is it not better to save somewhat certainly, than hazard all, and possess enough surely? especially, when the gainers must of necessity sit down by the losse; will not the glory of England be abated with the losse of so much noble blood, and so many brace Families, to which the continuance of this unfortunate doth threaten ruine? will our fields grow fertile by inundation of blood? or doth any one delight in beholding the pensive Matrons, solemnizing too too frequent Funeralls for their slaughter’d husbands and issues? let every one consider whose duty ‘tis to stoope first, in those things that may not trench upon our Religion, and then they will finde this Kingdome personated in the fable habit of a widdow, with dishelved hairs, seems to Petition those of AUthority, that since she is the Mother of most of us, and a Nurse unto us all, that they would take some speedy order for her redresse.

Nulla salus bello pacem nos possimus omnes.



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